Elementary Anatomy and Physiology – Making Tables

elementary anatomy and physiologyAnatomy refers to the structure of organisms, while physiology refers to the function of organisms. One hands-on way of studying anatomy and physiology is through dissections, and virtual dissections on the computer will work as well.

When your child learns the structure and function of organisms, making tables is a useful way to organize this information. Scientists often make tables so the data they collected can be easily seen and understood. Knowing how to make tables is a skill that will benefit your child in many subject areas.

Below you can find examples of tables that your child can make when studying organisms. They are arranged by grade level, and their content is based on education standards.* Content in the standards that refers to humans or plants was applied to animals.

I recently taught a squid dissection class, so all of the tables in this blog post represent squid anatomy and physiology. Some of the information you need for the tables will not be obvious through a dissection, so you and/or your child will need to look up the information online or in books or journals. I was able to find all of the information I needed for these tables through simple internet searches.

Kindergarten
Education standard: Recognize the five senses and related body parts.

Sense Body Part
Sight eyes
Smell pits beneath eyes
Hearing sacs near the brain
Taste all over body
Touch all over body

1st Grade
Education standard: Identify the major parts of plants, including stem, roots, leaves, and flowers.

Outer Body Parts Inner Body Parts
mantle 2 gills
fins 3 hearts
head beak
2 eyes stomach
8 arms pen
2 tentacles ink sac
siphon brain

2nd Grade
Education standard: Distinguish human body parts (brain, heart, lungs, stomach, muscles, and skeleton) and their basic functions.

Body Part Function
mantle hold the body together
fins steer and swim
2 eyes see
8 arms put food in mouth
2 tentacles catch food
siphon push out water, waste, and ink
2 gills breathe
3 hearts pump blood
beak tear food
stomach digest food
pen support body
ink sac store ink
brain control the body

3rd Grade
Education standard: Classify animals into major groups (mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, fish, arthropods, vertebrates and invertebrates, those having live births and those which lay eggs) according to their physical characteristics and behaviors.

Invertebrates Squid, Octopus, and Cuttlefish
no backbone or spine head
mirror image body plan
mantle
arms

4th Grade
Education standard: Explain that animals, including humans, cannot make their own food and that when animals eat plants or other animals, the energy stored in the food source is passed to them.

The set of education standards that I used did not contain anatomy and physiology standards for 4th grade, however, you could make a table with the organs found in the digestive system.

Prey Predators
small fish birds
crabs fish
shrimp sharks

5th Grade
Education standard: Identify the organs in the human body and describe their functions, including the skin, brain, heart, lungs, stomach, liver, intestines, pancreas, muscles and skeleton, reproductive organs, kidneys, bladder, and sensory organs.

Organ Function
eyes see in black and white
statocysts hearing
mantle hold the body together, camouflage
brain control the body
3 hearts pump blood through body
2 gills take in oxygen, release carbon dioxide
esophagus send food from mouth to stomach
stomach digest food
caecum absorb nutrients from food
intestine absorb nutrients from food
rectum pass waste out of the body
liver make digestive fluids
kidney remove waste from blood
ink sac store ink
muscles move the body, change the direction of the siphon
ovaries make eggs
testis make sperm

6th Grade
Education standard: Identify and investigate the general functions of the major systems of the human body (digestive, respiratory, circulatory, reproductive, excretory, immune, nervous, and musculoskeletal) and describe ways these systems interact with each other to maintain homeostasis.

Body System Organs in System Function
digestive and excretory esophagus, stomach, caecum, intestine, liver, kidney, rectum break down food, absorb nutrients, and get rid of waste
respiratory gills exchange oxygen and carbon dioxide with water
circulatory hearts pump blood throughout the body to carry oxygen from the gills and carbon dioxide to the gills
reproductive ovaries, testis, nidamental gland make eggs and sperm
immune certain cells and body fluids protect from disease
nervous brain, giant axon control the body
muscular funnel retractor muscles move the body

*Education standards are from Florida’s Next Generation Sunshine State Standards.

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